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Matrix Team

A matrix team is a temporary product (or project) team comprising specialists from different functional areas. The idea with the cross-functional nature of the team is to increase collaboration between different functions to create better products and faster releases.

  • Simple Example HR Head /Marketing Head /Finance Head/KYC Head /Project Manager Head all are sitting together and handling their team .and all are a single team of all Head together.
  • HR Head+ Marketing Head+ Finance Head+ KYC Head+ Project management = Matrix Team.

Agile Team

  • Agile is a methodology. methodologies mean the method of working the project for the Instance mode of the project and which way we can work and complete the project.
  • Agile is a project management philosophy that employs a fundamental set of values or principles
  • The beauty of Agile is realized throughout a series of five stages, known as the software development lifecycle (SDLC): Ideation, development, testing, deployment, and operations.

Difference Between Functional And Cross-Functional Team

  • Examples of cross-functional improvement projects include: Sales and marketing working together to improve the process of handing off the lead
  • In functional teams, the team members all perform tasks specific to the function of the department. Cross-functional work teams in an organization are teams that originate from disparate departments in an organization but work together towards the achievement of a common goal.

What are the types of cross-functional teams?

  • A few examples of cross-functional teams include product development teams, event planning teams, and project management teams. These teams typically include members from different departments who all have different types of expertise that they can bring to the table in order to achieve a common goal.

Project management

  • What Is Project Management? Project management involves the planning and organization of a company’s resources to move a specific task, event, or duty toward completion. It can involve a one-time project or an ongoing activity, and resources managed include personnel, finances, technology, and intellectual property.
  • Project management is defined as the process of steering a project from the start through its lifecycle. The main objective of project management is to complete a project within the established goals of time, budget, and quality. Projects have life cycles since they aren’t intended to last forever.
  • A project management life cycle starts when the project is initiated and ends when the project is either completed or terminated in one way or another

Business Analyst

  • Business analysts help maximize a business’s effectiveness through data-driven decisions.
  • Business analysts use data to form business insights and recommend changes in businesses and other organizations. Business analysts can identify issues in virtually any part of an organization, including IT processes, organizational structures, or staff development.
  • Business analysts (BAs) are responsible for bridging the gap between IT and the business using data analytics to assess processes, determine requirements and deliver data-driven recommendations and reports to executives and stakeholders.

QA Manager

Quality Assurance Manager.

  • Manager of Testers
  • The Quality Assurance (QA) Manager will oversee the activity of the quality assurance department and staff, developing, implementing, and maintaining a system of quality and reliability testing for the organization’s products and/or development processes.
  • A quality assurance (QA) manager ensures that a product meets the required qualifications to become acceptable. He or she is responsible for planning, directing, and devising quality control policies. These policies must uphold the company’s efficiency and profitability by streamlining processes.
  • A QA manager’s primary goal is to ensure that any software or hardware his or her company produces meets both external and internal requirements before they get sold to customers. To achieve this, a QA manager must carefully inspect and identify flaws and other non-conformance issues and know how to measure the effectiveness of quality assurance teams. 
  • IT QA managers are also expected to know about specific services, such as learning software, to measure quality levels, and maintain productivity effectively.

What are servers used for in it?

  • A server stores, sends, and receives data. In essence, it “serves” something else and exists to provide services. A computer, software program, or even a storage device may act as a server, and it may provide one service or several
  • Database servers, print servers, mail servers, file servers, application servers, web servers, and game servers are a few examples of servers.

Types of servers

There are many types of servers, which are as follows:

  • Webserver
  • Application server
  • Blade server
  • Cloud server
  • Database server
  • Dedicated server
  • Print server
  • Proxy server
  • File server
  • Mail server
  • Standalone server
  • Domain name service


  • Application software is commonly defined as any program or number of programs designed for end-users. That’s it, in a nutshell.
  • In that sense, any end-user program can be called an “application.” Hence the age-old saying: “There’s an app for that.”
  • As In old age we go for Bank for money transfers and all but we have some applications for money transfer like ph-pay, Gpay. Pay team where we can say our transaction of received and pay.

Operating System

  • An operating system is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs
  • Windows, Linux, and Unix are Examples


  • A LAMP stack is a bundle of four different software technologies that developers use to build websites and web applications. LAMP is an acronym for the operating system, Linux; the web server, Apache; the database server, MySQL; and the programming language, PHP.


  • A relatively new stack, MEAN stands for MongoDB, Express. js, AngularJS, and Node. js. MEAN is an end-to-end JavaScript stack largely used for cloud-ready applications.
  • The MEAN stack is a JavaScript-based framework for developing web applications. MEAN is named after MongoDB, Express, Angular, and Node, the four key technologies that make up the layers of the stack.
  • MongoDB — document database
  • Express(.js) — Node.js web framework
  • Angular(.js) — a client-side JavaScript framework
  • Node(.js) — the premier JavaScript web server
  • There are variations to the MEAN stack such as MERN (replacing Angular.js with React.js) and MEVN (using Vue.js). The MEAN stack is one of the most popular technology concepts for building web applications.

What is a mobile app (mobile application)?

  • A mobile app (or mobile application) is a software application developed specifically for use on small, wireless computing devices, such as smartphones and tablets, rather than desktop or laptop computers.
  • Mobile apps are built using a variety of programming languages and frameworks, and they can be downloaded and installed from app stores such as the Apple App Store or Google Play
  • Google’s Android and Apple’s iOS are operating systems used primarily in mobile technology, such as smartphones and tablets. Android, which is Linux-based and partly open source, is more PC-like than iOS, in that its interface and basic features are generally more customizable from top to bottom.
  • Android tools and Technologies /Framework -Xamarin, Ionic, react-native, flutter, kotlin
  • IOS framework-React-native, flutter, ionic, swift, Sprout Core, coca, swift language

Cloud Service Provider

What is cloud and how does it work?

  • Cloud Storage is a mode of computer data storage in which digital data is stored on servers in off-site locations. The servers are maintained by a third-party provider
  • Organizations of every type, size, and industry are using the cloud for a wide variety of use cases, such as data backup, disaster recovery, email, virtual desktops, software development and testing, big data analytics, and customer-facing web applications
  • Dropbox, Google Drive, and Amazon S3 are the most popular online storage that can keep our files readily accessible anytime, anywhere. They are the cloud computing examples that us take our data with us as long as we have an Internet connection to access them. Google Docs, Microsoft 365. Users can access Google Docs and Microsoft 365 through the internet. …
  • Email, Calendar, Skype, WhatsApp. …
  • Zoom. …
  • AWS Lambda.
  • Some cloud in-market/Cloud services providers.
  • AWS.Azure, GCP, Digital Ocean, Oracle cloud


  • Databases often store information about people, such as customers or users. For example, social media platforms use databases to store user information, such as names, email addresses and user behavior. The data is used to recommend content to users and improve the user experience.
  • A database is a tool for collecting and organizing information. Databases can store information about people, products, orders, or anything else. Many databases start as a list in a word-processing program or spreadsheet.

Two types of Databases

  • A relational database is the database management system in which data is stored in distinct tables from where they can be accessed or reassembled in different ways under user-defined relational tables, whereas a Non-Relational Database is a database architecture that is not built around tables.

Relational Database-SQL, Mssql, MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle

Non-Relational Database-Mongo dB

  • Note -SQL (Structured Query Language) is a domain-specific language developed for managing data stored in a Relational Database Management System (RDBMS).

What is search engine with example?

  • A search engine is a web-based tool that enables users to locate information on the World Wide Web. Popular examples of search engines are Google, Yahoo!, and MSN search.

Big Data

  • Hadoop. Definition. Big Data refers to a large volume of both structured and unstructured data. Hadoop is a framework to handle and process this large volume of Big data. 
  • Big data technologies
  • Apache Hadoop,
  • MapReduce

Tools in big data

  • Python language
  • Spark
  • Scala


  • Testing is the practice of making objective judgments regarding the extent to which the. system (device) meets, exceeds or fails to meet stated objectives.
  • There are four main stages of testing that need to be completed before a program can be cleared for use: unit testing, integration testing, system testing, and acceptance testing

2 Types of Testing

  • In manual testing, a human performs the tests step by step, without test scripts. In automated testing, tests are executed automatically via test automation frameworks, along with other tools and software
  • Automated tests are best used for features and functions that require the same input every time (such as an API, for example) because they can easily be repeated without human error. On the other hand, manual testing is better suited to detecting bugs caused by different inputs (such as user experience).
  • Manual testing tools-2 types of white black box tools-Jira, Bugzilla
  • Automation testing tools- Selenium, postman
  • Performance testing tools-load runner, Jmeter

Functional Testing and Non-Functional Testing.

  • Functional testing is testing the ‘Functionality’ of software or an application under test. Is the software is working? Is the Software are responding to our input?
  • Based on the requirement of the client, a document called a software specification or Requirement Specification is used as a guide to testing the application
  • The software is then tested in a real environment to check whether the actual result is in sync with the expected result. This technique is called Black Box Technique and is mostly carried out manually and is also very effective in finding bugs.

Types of Functional Testing,

  • This type of testing is performed before the actual system testing to check if the critical functionalities are working fine in order to carry out further extensive testing.
  • This, in turn, saves time installing the new build again and avoids further testing if the critical functionalities fail to work. This is a generalized way of testing the application.

Sanity Testing

  • It is a type of testing where only a specific functionality or a bug that is fixed is tested to check whether the functionality is working fine and see if there are no other issues due to the changes in the related components. It is a specific way of testing the application.

Integration Testing

  • Integration Testing is performed when two or more functions or components of the software are integrated to form a system. It basically checks the proper functioning of the software when the components are merged to work as a single unit.

Regression Testing:

  • Regression testing is carried out upon receiving the build of the software after fixing the bugs that were found in the initial round of testing. It verifies whether the bug is fixed and checks if the entire software is working fine with the changes.

Localization Testing:

  • It is a testing process to check the software’s functioning when it is transformed into an application using a different language as required by the client.
  • Example: Say a website is working fine in English language setup and now it is localized to a Spanish language setup. Changes in the language may affect the overall user interface and functionality too. Testing is done to check if these changes are known as Localization testing.

User Acceptance Testing

  • In User Acceptance testing, the application is tested based on the user’s comfort and acceptance by considering their ease of use.
  • The actual end users or the clients are given a trial version to be used in their office setup to check if the software is working as per their requirements in a real environment. This testing is carried out before the final launch and is also termed as Beta Testing or end-user testing.

Non-Functional Testing


  • There are some aspects which are complex such as the performance of an application etc and this testing checks the Quality of the software to be tested. Quality majorly depends on time, accuracy, stability, correctness and durability of a product under various adverse circumstances.
  • In software terms, when an application works as per the user’s expectation, smoothly and efficiently under any condition, then it is stated as a reliable application. Based on these aspects of quality, it is very critical to test under these parameters. This type of testing is called Non- Functional Testing.
  • It is not feasible to test this type manually, hence some special automated tools are used to test it.

Example tools: LoadRunner, Jmeter, etc. can use in all types of non-functionality testing.

Types of non-functionality testing.

  •  Load Testing: An application that is expected to handle a particular workload is tested for its response time in a real environment depicting a particular workload. It is tested for its ability to function correctly in a stipulated time and is able to handle the load.
  •  Stress Testing: In Stress testing, the application is stressed with an extra workload to check if it works efficiently and is able to handle the stress as per the requirement.
  • Example: Consider a website that is tested to check its behaviour when the user accesses is at its peak. There could be a situation where the workload crosses beyond the specification. In this case, the website may fail, slow down or even crash.
  • Stress testing is to check these situations using automation tools to create a real-time situation of workload and find the defects.
  •  Volume Testing: Under Volume testing the application’s ability to handle data in the volume is tested by providing a real-time environment. The application is tested for its correctness and reliability under adverse conditions.
  •  Endurance Testing: In Endurance testing the durability of the software is tested with a repeated and consistent flow of load in a scalable pattern. It checks the endurance power of the software when loaded with a consistent workload.
  • All these testing types are used to make the software work bug-free and crash free under any real time situation by addressing the issues and finding solutions accordingly for a quality product.

Usability Testing:

In this type of testing, the User Interface is tested for its ease of use and see how user-friendly it is.

Security Testing:

Security Testing is to check how secure the software is regarding data over the network from malicious attacks. The key areas to be tested in this testing include authorization, authentication of users and their access to data based on roles such as admin, moderator, composer, and user level.

Functional TestingNon-Functional Testing
It tests ‘What’ the product does. It checks the operations and actions of an application.It checks the behaviour of an application.
Functional testing is done based on the business requirement.Non- functional testing is done based on the customer expectation and Performance requirement.
It tests whether the actual result is working according to the expected result.It checks the response time, and speed of the software under specific conditions.
It is carried out manually.
Example: Black box testing method.
It is more feasible to test using automated tools.
Example: Loadrunner.Jmeter
It tests as per the customer requirements.It tests as per customer expectations.
Customer feedback helps in reducing the risk factors of the product.Customer feedback is more valuable for non- functional testing as it helps to improve and lets the tester to know the expectation of the customer.
It is testing the functionality of the software.It is testing the performance of the functionality of the software.
Functional testing has the following types:
•Unit testing
•Integration testing
•System Testing
•Acceptance Testing

Example: A Login page must show textboxes to Enter the username and password
Non-functional testing includes:
•Performance testing
•Load Testing
•Stress testing
•Volume testing
•Security testing
•Installation testing
•Recovery testing

Example: Test if a Login page is getting loaded in 5 seconds.

Content Management Systems 

  • The term Content Management Systems (CMS) commonly refers to platforms that support the design, development, and publication of website content. These systems organize, track, and retain digital content such as documents, text, images, audio, and video. They enable the delivery of a consistent brand experience across multiple product-
    Joomla, Drupal, WordPress etc

Software code repositories

  • Software code repositories are platforms or services that facilitate the storage, management, and collaboration of software development projects. They are essential tools for developers to version control their code, collaborate with team members, track changes, and manage project workflows. Here are some popular software code repositories:
  • GitHub: GitHub is one of the most widely used code repositories and collaboration platforms. It provides a web-based interface for hosting repositories and supports Git as its version control system. GitHub offers features like issue tracking, pull requests, code reviews, and extensive integrations with various development tools.
  • GitLab: GitLab is a web-based Git repository manager that provides similar functionalities to GitHub. It allows hosting code repositories, managing issues, and facilitating collaboration within teams. GitLab also offers additional features like continuous integration and deployment (CI/CD) pipelines, which make it a comprehensive DevOps platform.
  • Bitbucket: Bitbucket is another popular code repository that supports both Git and Mercurial version control systems. It provides similar functionalities to GitHub and GitLab, including code hosting, issue tracking, and pull requests. Bitbucket is particularly popular among teams using Atlassian’s suite of software development tools.
  • Azure DevOps: Azure DevOps, formerly known as Visual Studio Team Services (VSTS) and Team Foundation Server (TFS), is a comprehensive set of development tools offered by Microsoft. It includes code repositories, build and release pipelines, project management features, and more. Azure DevOps supports Git as its version control system.
  • SourceForge: SourceForge is an older code repository platform that has been around for a long time. It offers version control, issue tracking, and collaboration features for open-source and community-driven software projects. SourceForge supports both Git and Subversion (SVN) as version control systems.
  • Apache Subversion (SVN): Apache Subversion, commonly referred to as SVN, is a centralized version control system that allows developers to track changes in their codebase. SVN is often used in enterprise environments where a centralized approach to version control is preferred over distributed systems like Git.

These are just a few examples of popular software code repositories. Each platform has its own features, integrations, and community, so developers can choose the one that best suits their needs and preferences.

UX Design

  • A UX designer works from the very beginning of any product process to ensure product teams are building products that are conscious of their users, their needs, and pain points.
  • A UX designer works with branding, navigation, content, and product functions to ensure all of these elements are tied together to create an end result that’s joyful and fluid.
  • UI design is a little different because it focuses on human-computer interaction. This can be anything from a desktop web page to the usability of an app screen on a handheld device.

Tools and Software Used.

  • Photoshop, Illustrator, and Adobe XD. Other platforms, like Figma and Invision, are also popular UX design tools used across many companies and industries.

UI design and Develop

  • A user interface is the point of interaction between humans and computers. User interface design is the process of designing how these interfaces look and behave. 
  • Imagine you’re using an app on your smartphone to book flights. The screens you navigate, the buttons you tap and the forms you fill out are all part of the user interface. 


  • Figma, Invision, Adobe XD, sketch, Marvel.


  • methodologies -Method of Project

Two types of Methodologies

  • Agile and waterfall
  • Agile-scrum, kanban, XP

Programming Language

  • A programming language is a way for programmers (developers) to communicate with computers. Programming languages consist of a set of rules that allows string values to be converted into various ways of generating machine code, or, in the case of visual programming languages, graphical elements.

5 Types of Programming Language

  • Procedural programming languages
  • Functional programming languages
  • Object-oriented programming languages
  • Scripting languages
  • Logic programming languages

Procedural programming languages

  • A procedural language follows a sequence of statements or commands in order to achieve a desired output. Each series of steps is called a procedure, and a program written in one of these languages will have one or more procedures within it. Common examples of procedural languages include:
  • C and C++
  • Java
  • Pascal

Functional programming languages

  • Rather than focusing on the execution of statements, functional languages focus on the output of mathematical functions and evaluations. Each function–a reusable module of code–performs a specific task and returns a result. The result will vary depending on what data you input into the function. Some popular functional programming languages include:
  • Scala
  • Erlang
  • Haskell
  • Elixir
  • F#

 Object-oriented programming languages

  • This type of language treats a program as a group of objects composed of data and program elements, known as attributes and methods. Objects can be reused within a program or in other programs. This makes it a popular language type for complex programs, as code is easier to reuse and scale. Some common object-oriented programming (OOP) languages include:
  • Java
  • Python
  • PHP
  • C++
  • Ruby

Scripting languages

  • Programmers use scripting languages to automate repetitive tasks, manage dynamic web content, or support processes in larger applications. Some common scripting languages include:
  • PHP
  • Ruby
  • Python
  • bash
  • Perl
  • Node.js

Logic programming languages

  • Instead of telling a computer what to do, a logic programming language expresses a series of facts and rules to instruct the computer on how to make decisions. Some examples of logic languages include:
  • Prolog
  • Absys
  • Datalog
  • Alma-0
  • Some other languages are IT are C# Go, Swift.C, Ruby on Rails, Rust

Uses of Programming Language

  • JavaScript: interactive front-end web development-/ Framework-reactjs,vuejs,angular,flutter, express
    Python: web development, data analysis, machine learning, artificial intelligence/framework of python-, Django, flask, Cherrypy
    Java: desktop app development, Android mobile app development/Framework-spring,structs, sonar, hibernate
    Swift/Objective-C: iOS mobile app development/framework of Swift-Quick,Vapor, Swiftmonkey, Zip
    PHP: web development/framework CakePHP, Laravel CodeIgniter
    Ruby: web development
    C/C++: operating systems, game development, desktop software
    C#: application development with .NET, game development
    SQL: database management
    Perl: GUI development, web development

Full Stack Profile /Full stack Developer.

As the Name Indicates it contain the full stack Information for Instance it contain the front side + backend side and some additional tools to complete a full box.

UX Design

  • A UX designer works from the very beginning of any product process to ensure product teams are building products that are conscious of their users, their needs, and pain points.
  • A UX designer works with branding, navigation, content, and product functions to ensure all of these elements are tied together to create an end result that’s joyful and fluid.
  • UI design is a little different because it focuses on human-computer interaction. This can be anything from a desktop web page to the usability of an app screen on a handheld device.

Tools and Software Used.

  • Photoshop, Illustrator, and Adobe XD. Other platforms, like Figma and Invision, are also popular UX design tools used across many companies and industries.

UI design and Develop

  • A user interface is the point of interaction between humans and computers. User interface design is the process of designing how these interfaces look and behave. 
  • Imagine you’re using an app on your smartphone to book flights. The screens you navigate, the buttons you tap and the forms you fill out are all part of the user interface. 


  • Figma, Invision, Adobe XD, sketch, Marvel.

Web Developer

  • A web developer’s job is to create websites. While their primary role is to ensure the website is visually appealing and easy to navigate, many web developers are also responsible for the website’s performance and capacity. 
  • A Web Developer creates, designs, builds, and maintains websites, software, and web applications. Web Developers build websites by using programming languages like HTML, CSS, and Javascript to write code and convert a web design – created by the programmer or a design team – into a professional website, product, or mobile application.
  • A Web Developer is responsible for programming code that tells websites and web applications how to operate. Web Developers typically specialize in either “front-end” (“client-side”) development or “back-end” (“server-side”) development. Some versatile and highly sought-after professionals do both, and they’re called “Full-Stack Developers.

Types of Web Developers

  • Web developer jobs differ the most depending on what part of the website they’re working on. The three main types of developers include front-end, back-end, and full-stack. 

Front-End Developer

  • Front-end developers work on the user-facing side of a website, which is what we see when we click on a website from our phone or computer. They’re concerned with how the site looks and feels, which involves its design and how users experience it. This is a more creative role than other areas of web development but still involves technical skills to build the website’s look. Language -Html,CSS,Javascript coding and designing part.

Back-End Developer

  • Back-end developers work to make the front end of a website possible by writing and testing code. Their work isn’t visible to clients and users but makes the website functional and secure. For example, they might work on data storage, cybersecurity, site efficiency, and site maintenance. Tools-Any backened language with Database.

Full-Stack Developer

  • Full-stack developers have the best of both worlds — they work on front-end and back-end website development. Their knowledge base extends to both the user-facing and server sides, which means they can work on any task in the web development process.Tools-Frontend tools+ Backend Tools+ API+ VCS+Servers.

Mobile App Development.

  • A mobile app developer uses programming languages and development skills to create, test, and develop applications on mobile devices. They work in popular operating system environments like iOS and Android and often take into account UI and UX principles when creating applications.
  • Mobile application development is the process of creating software applications that run on a mobile device, and a typical mobile application utilizes a network connection to work with remote computing resources. Hence, the mobile development process involves creating installable software bundles (code, binaries, assets, etc.) , implementing backend services such as data access with an API, and testing the application on target devices.

What is native app in mobile application?

However, in the context of mobile web apps, the term native app means any application written to work on a specific device platform. The two main mobile OS platforms are Apple’s iOS and Google’s Android. Developers write native apps in the code used for the device and its OS.

What is an example of a native app?

  • A native app is developed specifically for one platform. It can be installed through an application store (such as Google Play Store or Apple’s App Store). Example − Whatsapp, Facebook

What is a cross-platform mobile app?

  • Cross-platform mobile development is an approach to developing software applications that are compatible with multiple mobile operating systems (OSes) or platforms. These apps are platform-agnostic, meaning they can be used regardless of the OS powering the mobile device.
  • Well-known examples of cross-platform mobile applications include: Instagram, Skype, Walmart, and Airbnb (React Native)

Desktop App Developer

  • Desktop application development is the process of creating applications to run locally on computer devices. You can use programming languages such as Java, C#, C++, Python, Ruby, and JavaScript to create desktop applications.
  • A desktop application is a software program that can be run on a standalone computer to perform a specific task by an end-user. Some desktop applications such as word editor, photo editing app and media player allow you to perform different tasks while other such as gaming apps are developed purely for entertainment. Desktop app no need to use Internet while web app Internet Connection to used.

Network Admin

  • A network administrator is an IT professional who ensures that an organization’s computer networks—groups of computers that share information with one another—are operating to meet the needs of the organization
  • Network and computer systems administrators are responsible for the day-to-day operation of these networks. They organize, install, and support an organization’s computer systems, including local area networks (LANs), wide area networks (WANs), network segments, intranets, and other data communication
  • As the internet has become an increasingly integral part of our lives, the need for someone to manage and oversee all data moving in and out of networks has become increasingly pressing. 
  • The network administrator is responsible for ensuring that all the data moving in and out of a network is doing so smoothly and efficiently. They work closely with network engineers to design and implement new network infrastructure and are always on hand to troubleshoot any issues that may arise.

What are the 4 types of Administrators?

Here are the four types of system administrators:

  • Network Administrators. Network administrators manage the entire network infrastructure of an organization. …
  • Database Administrators. …
  • Server/Web Administrators
  • Security Systems Administrators


  • Cyber security is the practice of defending computers, servers, mobile devices, electronic systems, networks, and data from malicious attacks. It’s also known as information technology security or electronic information security.

Types of Cyber security

  • Network security is the practice of securing a computer network from intruders, whether targeted attackers or opportunistic malware.
  • Application security focuses on keeping software and devices free of threats. A compromised application could provide access to the data its designed to protect. Successful security begins in the design stage, well before a program or device is deployed.
  • Information security protects the integrity and privacy of data, both in storage and in transit.
  • Operational security includes the processes and decisions for handling and protecting data assets. The permissions users have when accessing a network and the procedures that determine how and where data may be stored or shared all fall under this umbrella.
  • Disaster recovery and business continuity define how an organization responds to a cyber-security incident or any other event that causes the loss of operations or data. Disaster recovery policies dictate how the organization restores its operations and information to return to the same operating capacity as before the event. Business continuity is the plan the organization falls back on while trying to operate without certain resources.
  • End-user education addresses the most unpredictable cyber-security factor: people. Anyone can accidentally introduce a virus to an otherwise secure system by failing to follow good security practices. Teaching users to delete suspicious email attachments, not plug in unidentified USB drives, and various other important lessons is vital for the security of any organization.

Some IT Role In Cybersecurity.

  • Web application Security(VAPT )in web
  • Mobile security (VAPT in mobile)
  • Network Security (VAPT in Network)
  • API Security (VAPT in API)
  • Cloud Security (VAPT in Cloud)
  • Soc Analyst -Comes under compliance

Vapt Tools for Web Application

VAPT Tools for Mobile security

  • Burpsuite
  • Nikto
  • Zed Attack Proxy
  • Drozer
  • Veracode
  • Mobsf
  • QARK

VAPT Tools for Network Security

  • Wireshark
  • Metaspoilt
  • Nmap
  • Burpsuite
  • Nessus
  • Owasp Zap
  • Kali Linux
  • John the ribber

Security Testing tools for API Security

  • APISec
  • Burp Suite
  • Acunetix
  • beSECURE
  • Zap

VAPT Tools for Cloud Security

  • Astra Pentest. …
  • Intruder.
  • Nessus. …
  • Scout Suite. …
  • Pacu. …
  • Nmap. …
  • AWS Inspector. …
  • CloudBrute.

SOC Analyst

  • An SOC analyst is a person who works on a team to monitor, analyze, and respond to security issues. The main goal of SOC analysts is to prevent attacks on a network. They monitor the network for signs of an attack. Once an attack has been detected, they investigate it with other team members.

What is the role of SIEM in SOC?

  • SIEM: An Invaluable Tool for a SOC Team

    They need to have deep visibility into all of the systems under their protection and to be able to detect, prevent, and remediate a wide range of potential threats. The complexity of the networks and security architectures that SOC analysts work with can be overwhelming.

Siem tools

  • Splunk
  • Arcsight
  • McAfree
  • LogRhythm
  • Microfocus
  • Trustwave
  • Rapid7
  • IBM QRadar
  • SOC and Siem
  • A Security Operations Center (SOC) and a Security Incident and Event Management (SIEM) platform are different strategies for monitoring a network environment, and they work together to help corporations prevent data breaches and alert them to potential ongoing cyber-events.


  • A designer is an organisation or individual whose business involves preparing or modifying designs for construction projects, or arranging for, or instructing, others to do this. Designs include drawings, design details, specifications, bills of quantity and design calculations.
  • Graphic Designer.. …
  • Information Designer. …
  • Experiential Designer. …
  • Interaction Designer (IxD) …
  • User Experience (UX) Designer. …
  • User Interface (UI) Designer. …
  • Web Designer. …
  • Game Designer.

DevOps Engineer= Development + Operation

A DevOps Engineer’s role requires technical skills in the development cycle and operations skills for maintenance and support.

Tools which is used for Development and Operation Part in Devops

  • Experience working on Linux based infrastructure
  • Excellent understanding of Ruby, Python, Perl, and Java
  • Configuration and managing databases such as MySQL, Mongo
  • Excellent troubleshooting
  • Working knowledge of various tools, open-source technologies, and cloud services
  • Awareness of critical concepts in DevOps and Agile principles

Full Stack of DevOps Diagram.

Network Specilaist

  • A network specialist may need to remove and install software and hardware as well as oversee training new network users and providing security authorizations.

Network Technician

  • Network technicians monitor the everyday operations of an organization’s computer network, and they may also help to install software and hardware. They should communicate with clients and other network experts to develop and implement new safety measures to ensure that all systems and data are protected. Network technicians in this field help tackle PC issues and determine the best strategy to meet an organization’s technological needs.

Network Administrator

  • network administrator (also called a system administrator) is responsible for keeping a company’s computer network up-to-date and running easily. Any company that uses multiple PCs or software platforms needs a network administrator to coordinate the different systems.
  • This position can be flexible or quite limited depending upon the company and how complex its networks are. But in general, a network administrator is responsible for the following tasks:
  • Installing computer systems and network
  • Maintaining, repairing, and upgrading computer systems and networks
  • Diagnosing and fixing issues with the network and its software, hardware, and systems
  • Monitoring systems and networks to enhance performance.

Network Analyst

Network Manager

  • network manager has a two-part role:
  • Responsibility for installing and maintaining the organization’s computer networks
  • Training and preparing staff to give top notch specialized help.
  • If there are issues with the system, a network manager’s responsibility is to have a recovery plan in place to limit any disturbance to the business.

Network Engineer

  • Network engineers work with an organization’s computer network, utilizing information technology to develop network systems for everyone in an organization to use. These information networks can include local area networks (LANs), wide area networks (WANs), intranets, and extranets
  • Network Support Engineer
  • Level 2 Support Engineer
  • Network Engineer – Field Installation
  • Network Engineer – Helpdesk Analyst
  • Senior Managed Service Network Engineer

Network Solutions Architect

  • network solutions architect defines current and future standards for networking and telecommunication infrastructure. The ideal candidate has experience with firewalls, understanding of Linux/Unix configurations, knowledge of VLANs, VSANS, and Hypervisors, and familiarity with internet routing and connectivity and configuration of wireless access points.

Cloud Networking Architect

  • A cloud networking architect works closely with customers by assisting them with the deployment of infrastructure that meets their technical and business needs. The candidate must have deep knowledge of cloud technologies, experience in migrating networks to the cloud, capability to solve network-related issues, troubleshooting skills, and effective verbal and written communication skills.

Wireless Infrastructure and Mobility Specialist

  • A person in this position is responsible for project implementation, software delivery, capacity management, network support, new features implementation, and operations of the wireless core. This individual’s skill set should include managing and supporting wireless infrastructure, including HSPA voice core, VoLTE/IMS, VoWiFi, Enhanced Packet Core, SS7 and diameter networks, network translations and trunking, and CDMA

Mobility Solutions Architect

  • mobility solutions architect is expected to collaborate with businesses, developers, and fellow architects in order to provide mobility solutions that are robust, secure, and scalable. This role ensures the overall quality of the architecture solutions and shares it with the cross-functional team and executive leadership. The individual should also have hands-on experience in multiple hardware and software environments and be comfortable handling heterogeneous systems.

VOIP Engineer

  • A VOIP Engineer plans, designs, and implements the voice infrastructure and proposes solutions to the existing voice and data networks. The VOIP engineers are expected to maintain, troubleshoot, and provide solutions to complex software and hardware problems, maintain good relationships, and communicate effectively with clients and teammates.

Telecom Project Manager

  • telecom project manager is responsible for handling a team, which includes engineers and client representatives. The main role of a project manager is to analyze, maintain, and control all the aspects of the project, from both a technical and managerial perspective. The desired skills of a project manager include understanding logical configuration, having good client-interfacing skills, and a clear understanding of telecom business scenarios.

Data Center Networking Specialist

  • With the increase in the complexity of the networks, managing data centers has become an ongoing challenge. The role of a data center networking specialist is to manage the infrastructure in a way that ensures the business is agile and reliable. A data center networking specialist is expected to perform technical installation and complex design of network equipment that includes routers, switches, and other devices which are common in data centers.

Certifications to Advance Your Networking Career:

Some Network Admin profiles –

Network Admin-tools-routing ,switching,

Network Data Admin-LAN/WAN

Network security Admin-Palo alto,checkpoint. firewall,Load balancerNetwork Voice Tools-TCP/IP/Protocol

System Support Specialist

  • System support specialists provide help desk assistance and technical support for all types of issues affecting end users, such as software problems, network breakdowns, and hardware failures. They create and maintain user accounts.
  • After users report issues to the help desk through phone or email or a ticketing system, technicians track issues and begin to identify the glitches using conventional procedures and their insights. After isolating the problem, they find ways of fixing it. They need to replace the faulty hardware or resolve the software problem, depending on whether it is a software or a hardware issue.
  • If specialists cannot fix the problem, they escalate it to the relevant department. They also fix other devices, such as printers, scanners, copiers, and fax machines, among others. They should have excellent customer service skills.
  • Specialists monitor systems and install automated alerts. They design, develop, and upgrade existing systems.
  • Technicians guide end users on usage, security, access, and tweaking of applications and software. They monitor, assess, fix and upgrade system and application issues so that systems function uninterruptedly.
  • Specialists support operating systems, email clients, software as a service (SaaS) applications, and other crucial software of the organization/clients. They aid in software and hardware implementation, inventory, documentation, etc.
  • Technicians move, add, change user equipment, such as cabling, as required. They plan, document, deploy and take part in other support activities. Specialists comply with information security measures as dictated by management and policy. They secure systems using backups and access controls.
  • It would be beneficial if they have experience with PowerShell and Active Directory. They should be conversant with ITIL principles and be able to work with different operating systems, such as Windows, Unix, Linux or macOS.
  • Alternative name of profile Application Support Engineer/Technical support/IT support specialist/ Helpdesk Specialist


The cloud” refers to servers that are accessed over the Internet, and the software and databases that run on those servers. Cloud servers are located in data centers all over the world. By using cloud computing, users and companies do not have to manage physical servers themselves or run software applications on their own machines.

What is cloud in information technology?

  • Cloud computing technology gives users access to storage, files, software, and servers through their internet-connected devices: computers, smartphones, tablets, and wearables. Cloud computing providers store and process data in a location that’s separate from end users.

What are the main service models of cloud computing

  • Software-as-a-Service (SaaS): Instead of users installing an application on their device, SaaS applications are hosted on cloud servers, and users access them over the Internet. SaaS is like renting a house: the landlord maintains the house, but the tenant mostly gets to use it as if they owned it. Examples of SaaS applications include Salesforce, Mail Chimp, and Slack.
  • Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS): In this model, companies don’t pay for hosted applications; instead they pay for the things they need to build their own applications. PaaS vendors offer everything necessary for building an application, including development tools, infrastructure, and operating systems, over the Internet. PaaS can be compared to renting all the tools and equipment necessary for building a house, instead of renting the house itself. PaaS examples include Heroku and Microsoft Azure.
  • Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS): In this model, a company rents the servers and storage they need from a cloud provider. They then use that cloud infrastructure to build their applications. IaaS is like a company leasing a plot of land on which they can build whatever they want — but they need to provide their own building equipment and materials. IaaS providers include Digital Ocean, Google Compute Engine, and OpenStack.
  • Formerly, SaaS, PaaS, and IaaS were the three main models of cloud computing, and essentially all cloud services fit into one of these categories. However, in recent years a fourth model has emerged:
  • Function-as-a-Service (FaaS)FaaS, also known as serverless computing, breaks cloud applications down into even smaller components that only run when they are needed. Imagine if it were possible to rent a house one little bit at a time: for instance, the tenant only pays for the dining room at dinner time, the bedroom while they are sleeping, the living room while they are watching TV, and when they are not using those rooms, they don’t have to pay rent on them.
  • FaaS or serverless applications still run on servers, as do all these models of cloud computing. But they are called “serverless” because they do not run on dedicated machines, and because the companies building the applications do not have to manage any servers.
  • Also, serverless functions scale up, or duplicate, as more people use the application — imagine if the tenant’s dining room could expand on demand when more people come over for dinner! 

Cloud specialist

  • A cloud specialist, also known as a cloud solutions architect or cloud engineer, is a professional who specializes in designing, implementing, and managing cloud-based solutions for businesses. Cloud specialists have expertise in various cloud platforms, such as AWS, Azure, or GCP, and understand how to leverage cloud technologies to meet specific business needs.
  • Cloud specialists require a strong understanding of cloud computing concepts, architectures, and services. They should stay updated with the latest advancements and trends in cloud technology and possess excellent problem-solving and communication skills. Additionally, cloud specialists often hold relevant certifications specific to the cloud platforms they specialize in, such as AWS Certified Solutions Architect, Microsoft Certified: Azure Solutions Architect, or Google Cloud Certified – Professional Cloud Architect.
  • Cloud specialists utilize a variety of tools and technologies to design, implement, and manage cloud-based solutions. Here are some commonly used tools across different stages of the cloud lifecycle:
  • Cloud Platforms: Amazon Web Services (AWS), Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud Platform (GCP), and other cloud service providers offer their own set of tools and services for managing resources, deploying applications, and monitoring performance within their respective platforms.
  • Infrastructure as Code (IaC) Tools: Tools like AWS CloudFormation, Azure Resource Manager, and Google Cloud Deployment Manager enable the provisioning and management of cloud resources using code. These tools facilitate automation, consistency, and version control of infrastructure deployments.
  • Configuration Management: Tools like Ansible, Chef, and Puppet help with configuration management and automation of infrastructure and application deployments. They allow cloud specialists to define and maintain desired states for their resources and ensure consistency across different environments.
  • Containerization and Orchestration: Tools like Docker and Kubernetes are widely used for containerization and orchestration of applications in the cloud. Containers provide a lightweight and portable environment for applications, while Kubernetes automates the deployment, scaling, and management of containerized applications.
  • Monitoring and Logging: Cloud-specific monitoring and logging tools, such as AWS CloudWatch, Azure Monitor, Google Cloud Monitoring, and ELK Stack (Elasticsearch, Logstash, Kibana), enable cloud specialists to collect, analyze, and visualize performance metrics, logs, and events from various cloud services and applications.
  • Continuous Integration and Continuous Deployment (CI/CD): Tools like Jenkins, Travis CI, and GitLab CI/CD enable the automation of build, test, and deployment pipelines. These tools integrate with version control systems and facilitate the continuous integration and deployment of applications in the cloud.
  • Security and Compliance: Cloud specialists leverage tools such as AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM), Azure Active Directory, and Google Cloud IAM for managing user access, roles, and permissions within cloud platforms. They also utilize security assessment tools, vulnerability scanners, and compliance frameworks to ensure cloud resources meet security standards and regulatory requirements.
  • Backup and Disaster Recovery: Cloud-based backup and disaster recovery tools, such as AWS Backup, Azure Site Recovery, and GCP Cloud Storage, provide data protection, replication, and recovery capabilities to safeguard against data loss and enable business continuity.
  • Data Analytics and Machine Learning: Cloud specialists employ tools like AWS Glue, Azure Synapse Analytics, and GCP BigQuery for data integration, processing, and analysis in the cloud. For machine learning and AI workloads, platforms like AWS SageMaker, Azure Machine Learning, and GCP AI Platform offer tools and frameworks for model training and deployment.
  • Collaboration and Communication: Cloud specialists often utilize collaboration and communication tools like Slack, Microsoft Teams, and Google Workspace to collaborate with team members, manage projects, and communicate effectively during cloud-related initiatives.

Business Intelligence

  • Business intelligence (BI) is a technology-driven process for analyzing data and delivering actionable information that helps executives, managers and workers make informed business decisions. As part of the BI process, organizations collect data from internal IT systems and external sources, prepare it for analysis, run queries against the data and create data visualizations, BI dashboards and reports to make the analytics results available to business users for operational decision-making and strategic planning.
  • The ultimate goal of BI initiatives is to drive better business decisions that enable organizations to increase revenue, improve operational efficiency and gain competitive advantages over business rivals. To achieve that goal, BI incorporates a combination of analytics, data management and reporting tools, plus various methodologies for managing and analyzing data.
  • What are the five basic tasks of business intelligence?
  • BI performs analysis, reporting, data mining, predictive analysis, online analytical processing, and business performance management.

Tools for BI

  • Tableau.
  • Domo. …
  • Sisense. …
  • Zoho Analytics. …
  • QlikSense. …
  • Dundas BI. …
  • Microsoft Power BI. …
  • Looker.

Alternative name of profile

Business Intelligence Consultant/Power BI Developer/Oracle Developer/Data scientist/Data Analyst BI /Architect BI analyst/Data warehouse (ETL) developer /Database administrator/Database developer

Enterprise application development

  • Enterprise application development is the process of building and deploying applications customized to complex business requirements. These applications are usually scalable and help meet business needs.
  • Java is widely used by enterprise-scale applications and is extremely stable, which explains its widespread adoption by top organisations.

The most common types of enterprise apps used across a variety of industries including:

  • Automated billing systems
  • Business intelligence
  • Call center and customer support
  • Content management
  • Customer relationship management (CRM) email marketing systems
  • Enterprise application integration (EAI)
  • Enterprise resource planning (ERP)
  • Enterprise search
  • HR management
  • Marketing automation
  • Messaging and collaboration systems
  • Payment processing
  • Project management tools

Content Management Systems 

  • The term Content Management Systems (CMS) commonly refers to platforms that support the design, development, and publication of website content. These systems organize, track, and retain digital content such as documents, text, images, audio, and video. They enable the delivery of a consistent brand experience across multiple

CMS vs Website Builder Software

  • CMS software overlaps with Website Builder Software that contains CMS features and provides hosting services but has limited features and capabilities when compared to more robust CMS solutions.
  • Blogging Platforms are an example of a CMS platform that is exclusively devoted to supporting blogging. Closely related categories include Enterprise CMS, which manages digital content across an entire organization, and Content Marketing Software, which offer tools that extend the functionality of content management systems.

There are Some Product of CMS. List is below


  • Oracle WebCenter
  • Confluence
  • Xerox DocuShare
  • Sharepoint
  • File Cloud
  • Adobe Experience Manager
  • Magnolia
  • Word press VIP
  • OCMS


Enterprise resource planning (ERP) refers to a type of software that organizations use to manage day-to-day business activities

  • ERP is a software system that integrates and automates business processes across departments, using a central database to streamline operations, enhance efficiency, and provide real-time insights and control.
  • Collect Data from including accounting, manufacturing, supply chain management, sales, marketing and human resources (HR)

ERP Software

  • NetSuite.
  • SAP S/4HANA Cloud.
  • Sage Intacct.
  • Microsoft Dynamics 365 Business Central.
  • Acumatica.
  • Oracle JD Edwards EnterpriseOne
  • Salesforce
  • Odoo
  • Oracle NetSuite
  • SAP Business Objects
  • “Landscape” means that the app is displayed horizontally (hot-dog style), and “Portrait” means the app is displayed vertically (hamburger style). Most applications support both orientations, but there are special use cases where some are landscape or horizontal by default.

What is portrait and landscape in mobile?

  • Mobile in Landscape Mode means the horizontal view of the app, while portrait mode represents the vertical view.

Android Mobile App Development Landscape

  • The Android mobile app development landscape refers to the overall environment, tools, technologies, and trends associated with creating applications for the Android operating system. Here are some key components of the Android mobile app development landscape.
  • Android Operating System: Android is an open-source operating system developed by Google, used by a wide range of devices including smartphones, tablets, smart TVs, and wearables. Developers need to understand the Android platform’s features, APIs, and guidelines to build compatible apps.
  • Java and Kotlin: Android apps are primarily developed using Java or Kotlin programming languages. Java has been the traditional language for Android development, while Kotlin is gaining popularity due to its modern features, conciseness, and interoperability with existing Java code.
  • Integrated Development Environments (IDEs): Android Studio is the official IDE for Android app development. It provides a comprehensive set of tools for designing, coding, debugging, and testing Android applications. Other popular IDEs include IntelliJ IDEA and Eclipse.
  • Software Development Kit (SDK): The Android SDK includes a collection of libraries, APIs, and tools required for building Android apps. It provides access to device features such as camera, sensors, location services, and more. Developers use SDK components to write code and interact with the Android platform.
  • User Interface (UI) Design: Android offers a variety of UI components and layout options to create visually appealing and user-friendly interfaces. Developers can utilize XML and Java/Kotlin code to design UI layouts and handle user interactions effectively.
  • Application Programming Interfaces (APIs): Android provides a vast range of APIs for accessing device functionalities and services. These APIs cover areas such as multimedia, networking, storage, notifications, permissions, and more. Developers leverage these APIs to add desired features and capabilities to their apps.
  • App Distribution: Once an app is developed, it can be published on the Google Play Store, the official app marketplace for Android. Developers can also distribute apps through third-party app stores, direct downloads, or enterprise distribution channels.
  • Continuous Updates and Fragmentation: Android devices come in various models, screen sizes, and versions of the operating system. This fragmentation introduces challenges for developers, as they need to ensure their apps are compatible with different devices and OS versions. It’s crucial to stay updated with the latest Android releases, security patches, and industry trends.
  • Libraries and Frameworks: There are numerous third-party libraries and frameworks available for Android app development. These tools simplify common tasks, enhance productivity, and offer ready-to-use functionalities, such as networking, database management, UI design, testing, and more.
  • Industry Trends: The Android mobile app development landscape is constantly evolving. Stay updated with emerging trends like augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR), Internet of Things (IoT), machine learning, and cloud integration, as these technologies can shape the future of Android app development.
  • Successful Android app development requires a combination of technical skills, creativity, understanding of user experience, and keeping up with the dynamic landscape of the Android platform

Some Library used in Android Development

  • Retrofit: A type-safe HTTP client library for making network requests and interacting with APIs.
  • Glide: An image loading and caching library that simplifies the process of displaying images in Android apps.
  • Dagger: A dependency injection framework that facilitates managing and injecting dependencies into Android components.
  • Room: A SQLite object mapping library that provides an abstraction layer for local data persistence in Android apps.
  • RxJava: A reactive programming library that allows developers to write asynchronous, event-based, and responsive code using Observables.
  • Butter Knife: A view binding library that simplifies accessing and binding views in Android XML layouts.
  • Gson: A JSON parsing library that converts Java objects to JSON and vice versa.
  • Picasso: An image loading library that handles image downloading, caching, and displaying in Android apps.
  • Firebase: A comprehensive suite of backend services provided by Google, offering features like authentication, real-time database, cloud messaging, storage, and more.
  • Mockito: A mocking framework used for writing unit tests in Android development to simulate dependencies and behaviors.
  • EventBus: A lightweight event bus library that simplifies communication between different components of an Android app.
  • Retrofit: A powerful HTTP client library for making network requests and handling API interactions.
  • OkHttp: A widely used HTTP client library that offers efficient network calls and supports features like caching, authentication, and connection pooling.
  • Dagger 2: A fast and flexible dependency injection framework for managing object dependencies and promoting modularity in Android apps.
  • ExoPlayer: A media playback library that supports a wide range of audio and video formats and provides advanced playback features like streaming, adaptive streaming, and DRM support.
  • Gson: A JSON serialization and deserialization library for converting Java objects to JSON and vice versa.
  • Android Architecture Components: A set of libraries that help developers build robust, maintainable, and testable Android apps, including LiveData, View Model, Room, and Data Binding.
  • Material Components for Android: A library that implements the Material Design guidelines, providing pre-designed UI components and styles for creating visually appealing and consistent Android apps.
  • Realm: A mobile database solution that offers fast and efficient data storage and retrieval with an easy-to-use object-oriented API.
  • Mockito: A mocking framework for writing unit tests in Android apps, allowing developers to simulate and verify the behavior of dependencies.

What is native app in mobile application?

However, in the context of mobile web apps, the term native app means any application written to work on a specific device platform. The two main mobile OS platforms are Apple’s iOS and Google’s Android. Developers write native apps in the code used for the device and its OS.

What is an example of a native app?

  • A native app is developed specifically for one platform. It can be installed through an application store (such as Google Play Store or Apple’s App Store). Example − Whatsapp, Facebook

What is a cross-platform mobile app?

  • Cross-platform mobile development is an approach to developing software applications that are compatible with multiple mobile operating systems (OSes) or platforms. These apps are platform-agnostic, meaning they can be used regardless of the OS powering the mobile device.
  • Well-known examples of cross-platform mobile applications include: Instagram, Skype, Walmart, and Airbnb (React Native)
  • These are just a few examples,  which we have list above and there are many more libraries and frameworks available to cater to various development needs in the Android ecosystem. Developers can explore and leverage these tools based on their specific requirements to accelerate their app development process

The iOS mobile app development landscape refers to the overall environment, tools, technologies, and trends associated with creating applications for the iOS operating system, primarily used on Apple’s iPhone, iPad, and iPod Touch devices. Here are some key components of the iOS mobile app development landscape:

  • iOS Operating System: iOS is a closed-source operating system developed by Apple for its mobile devices. Developers need to understand the iOS platform’s features, frameworks, and guidelines to build compatible apps.
  • Swift and Objective-C: iOS apps are primarily developed using the Swift programming language, which is modern, safe, and designed specifically for iOS development. Objective-C, an older language, is still in use and is used for legacy codebases or certain frameworks.
  • Xcode: Xcode is the official Integrated Development Environment (IDE) for iOS app development. It provides a comprehensive set of tools for designing, coding, debugging, and testing iOS applications. Xcode also includes a visual interface builder for creating user interfaces.
  • iOS Software Development Kit (SDK): The iOS SDK includes a collection of frameworks, libraries, and tools required for building iOS apps. It provides access to various device features and APIs, including user interface components, networking, multimedia, storage, location services, and more.
  • Interface Builder: Interface Builder is a visual tool integrated into Xcode that allows developers to design user interfaces using a drag-and-drop interface. It enables the creation of interfaces through a combination of graphical elements and code.
  • UIKit: UIKit is a framework that provides a set of pre-built user interface components and controls for iOS app development. It includes elements such as buttons, labels, text fields, tables, collection views, and more. UIKit is used to create visually appealing and interactive user interfaces.
  • Core Data: Core Data is a framework that provides an object-oriented approach to data persistence in iOS apps. It allows developers to manage and manipulate application data, including local databases and caching.
  • Cocoa Touch: Cocoa Touch is a collection of frameworks that provide the essential building blocks for iOS app development. It includes frameworks like UIKit, Core Animation, Core Location, Core Graphics, and more, which enable developers to create powerful and feature-rich applications.
  • App Store Distribution: Once an iOS app is developed, it can be submitted and distributed through the Apple App Store, the official marketplace for iOS apps. Developers need to adhere to Apple’s guidelines and app review process to publish their apps.
  • TestFlight: TestFlight is Apple’s platform for beta testing and distributing pre-release versions of iOS apps to testers. It allows developers to gather feedback and identify bugs before the app is released to the App Store.
  • Apple Developer Program: The Apple Developer Program provides access to additional resources, tools, documentation, and support for iOS app development. It is required to distribute apps on the App Store and access certain advanced features and frameworks.
  • SwiftUI: SwiftUI is a modern UI framework introduced by Apple that simplifies the process of building user interfaces for iOS, macOS, watchOS, and tvOS apps. It enables developers to create declarative and responsive UIs with less code.
  • ARKit: ARKit is a framework that enables developers to create augmented reality (AR) experiences in iOS apps. It provides tools and APIs to integrate virtual objects into the real world using the device’s camera and sensors.
  • Machine Learning and Core ML: Core ML is a framework that allows developers to integrate machine learning models into iOS apps. It provides support for tasks such as image recognition, natural language processing, and more.
  • Swift Package Manager: Swift Package Manager is a command-line tool that helps manage dependencies in Swift projects. It simplifies the process of adding, updating, and removing external libraries and frameworks.
  • Apple Watch, Apple WatchiPad, Phone-Project/Platforms

Software Development Life Cycle

Stage1: Planning and requirement analysis

  • Requirement Analysis is the most important and necessary stage in SDLC.
  • The senior members of the team perform it with inputs from all the stakeholders and domain experts or SMEs in the industry.
  • Planning for the quality assurance requirements and identifications of the risks associated with the projects is also done at this stage.
  • Business analyst and Project organizer set up a meeting with the client to gather all the data like what the customer wants to build, who will be the end user, what is the objective of the product. Before creating a product, a core understanding or knowledge of the product is very necessary.
  • For Example, A client wants to have an application which concerns money transactions. In this method, the requirement has to be precise like what kind of operations will be done, how it will be done, in which currency it will be done, etc.

Stage2: Defining Requirements

  • Once the requirement analysis is done, the next stage is to certainly represent and document the software requirements and get them accepted from the project stakeholders.
  • This is accomplished through “SRS”- Software Requirement Specification document which contains all the product requirements to be constructed and developed during the project life cycle

Stage3: Designing the Software

  • The next phase is about to bring down all the knowledge of requirements, analysis, and design of the software project. This phase is the product of the last two, like inputs from the customer and requirement gathering.

Stage4: Developing the project

  • In this phase of SDLC, the actual development begins, and the programming is built. The implementation of design begins concerning writing code. Developers have to follow the coding guidelines described by their management and programming tools like compilers, interpreters, debuggers, etc. are used to develop and implement the code

Stage5: Testing

  • After the code is generated, it is tested against the requirements to make sure that the products are solving the needs addressed and gathered during the requirements stage.
  • During this stage, unit testing, integration testing, system testing, acceptance testing are done.

Stage6: Deployment

  • Once the software is certified, and no bugs or errors are stated, then it is deployed.
  • Then based on the assessment, the software may be released as it is or with suggested enhancement in the object segment.

Stage7: Maintenance

  • After the software is deployed, then its maintenance begins.
  • Once when the client starts using the developed systems, then the real issues come up and requirements to be solved from time to time.
  • This procedure where the care is taken for the developed product is known as maintenance.



Web Development – Simplified


What are the roles and responsibilities of front-end and back-end developer?

  • Front-end developers work directly with the client to create a look and feel for a website that solves problems in creative, inventive ways.
  • Back-end developers are behind-the-scenes, making sure servers, applications, and databases function smoothly and quickly.

What is the primary use of database in web development?

  • Database are special type of software, which mainly used in dealing with website information. Primary function of it deals with storing, updating, creating and deleting data.
  • The functions of a DBMS include concurrency, security, backup and recovery, integrity and data descriptions. Database management systems provide a number of key benefits but can be costly and time-consuming to implement.

The function of a database is….

  • to check all input data.
  • the check all spelling.
  • to collect and organize input data.
  • to output data.

Two types of Databases

  • A relational database is the database management system in which data is stored in distinct tables from where they can be accessed or reassembled in different ways under user-defined relational tables, whereas a Non-Relational Database is a database architecture that is not built around tables.

Relational Database-SQL, Mssql, MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle

Non-Relational Database-Mongo dB

  • Note -SQL (Structured Query Language) is a domain-specific language developed for managing data stored in a Relational Database Management System (RDBMS).

Agile Team Responsibility

  • The Agile methodology is an alternative Traditional Project management. Following this method, teams break down projects into short segments, or sprints, that they can work on at pace. When done well, this approach fosters adaptability and flexibility.  To know how to apply this method with your team, let’s explore the Agile team roles.
  • An Agile team is made up of individuals from across different functions, brought together to work collaboratively. The idea of such teams is that they can work faster and be more adaptable than traditional project groups. Agile teams are designed to work iteratively, completing one part of the project at a time, which increases productivity and reduces risk.
  • For this to work, 
  • Agile teams need to operate around the principles of self-organization, meaning individuals on the team have to take on key responsibilities
Agile team rolesResponsibilities
Product ownerManage product roadmap and prioritize the backlog.
DeveloperWorks on prioritized work by the product owner in the sprint.
StakeholderIdentify customer needs and feedback to the product owner during the course of the project.
Scrum masterRemove obstacles to team progress, including scope creep, and support team.
Team leaderRemove obstacles to team progress.
TesterWork with product owners to define acceptance criteria and check for mistakes before sending the product to the client.
ArchitectMaintain the agreed-upon structure of the product and ensure that it meets the requirements​​.
Technical and domain expertAdvise on technical and technological decisions in line with the agreed project scope.
Dev OpsWork on version control, testing, security, integration, and deployment.
UX designerWork with the product owner to come up with designs for the product.

Is kanban and Scrum part of agile?

  • Scrum and Kanban, on the other hand, are two frameworks that are considered to be Agile. Or, to put it another way: If you need to work in an Agile fashion, Scrum and Kanban are two ways to do it.” Both Scrum and Kanban are two different Agile project management systems with subtle difference

Test Methodology

Testing methodologies are the strategies and approaches used to test a particular product to ensure it is fit for purpose.

DefinitionTDD is a development technique that focuses more on the implementation of a featureBDD is a development technique that focuses on the system’s behaviourATDD is a technique similar to BDD, focusing more on capturing the requirements
ParticipantsDeveloperDevelopers, Customers, QAsDevelopers, Customers, QAs
Language usedWritten in a language similar to the one used for feature development (Eg. Java, Python, etc)Simple English, (Gherkin) Simple English, Gherkin 
Main FocusUnit TestsUnderstanding RequirementsWriting Acceptance Tests
Tools usedJDave, Cucumber, JBehave, SpecFlow, BeanSpec, Gherkin Concordian, FitNesse, Jest, Jasmine, Protractor

What is the use of framework in development?

  • To put it simply, a framework is a set structure in which tasks are performed or completed. It can identify as a structure of a system, a building, a project, or something similar. The framework, just like the name suggests, can be used to build software as it acts almost as a foundation.
  • Frameworks are a huge help to developers in designing products. They provide an infrastructure that has already figured out the low-level details, allowing the developer to focus on the unique details of the specific project.

Use and Responsibilities of Programming Language?

  • Programming languages allow developers to communicate with computers.
  • Programming languages use classes and functions that control commands. The reason that programming is so important is that it directs a computer to complete these commands over and over again, so people do not have to do the task repeatedly. Instead, the software can do it automatically and accurately

Uses And Responsibilities of API.

  • Application Programming Interface (API) is a software interface that allows two applications to interact with each other without any user intervention. API is a collection of software functions and procedures. In simple terms, API means a software code that can be accessed or executed. API is defined as a code that helps two different software’s to communicate and exchange data with each other.
  • After understanding the concept, let us take some more technical examples.
  • For example, you go to the movie site, you enter your movie, name, and credit card information, and behold, you print out tickets.
  • They are collaborating with other applications. This integration is called “seamless,” as you never have a clue when a software role is passed from one application to another.
  • Inshort./Summary
  • The full form of API is Application Programming Interface.
  • API is defined as a software code that helps two different software’s to communicate and exchange data with each other.
  • API helps you to plan a business model
  • Five types of API are 1) Open API 2) Partner API 3) Internal API 4) High-level 5) Low-level API
  • A Web API is an application programming interface which is use either for web server or a web browser.
  • There are two types of web APIs 1) Server Side API 2) Client Side API
  • Some popular API testing tools are 1) Postman 2) Ping API and 3) vRest

                   Desktop Application Development

The desktop development landscape refers to the tools, technologies, and frameworks used for creating applications that run on desktop computers. It encompasses a wide range of programming languages, frameworks, and libraries that developers can use to build desktop applications for different platforms such as Windows, macOS, and Linux. Here are some key components of the desktop development landscape:

  • Programming Languages:
  • C++: A powerful language commonly used for building high-performance desktop applications.
  • C#: Developed by Microsoft, it is widely used for building Windows desktop applications.
  • Java: A versatile language that can be used for developing cross-platform desktop applications.
  • Python: Known for its simplicity and readability, Python is popular for desktop app development.
  • Swift: Primarily used for macOS and iOS development, Swift provides a modern approach to building desktop applications.

Integrated Development Environments (IDEs):

  • Visual Studio: Microsoft’s flagship IDE, primarily used for developing Windows applications.
  • Xcode: Apple’s IDE, used for developing applications for macOS and iOS.
  • IntelliJ IDEA: A popular IDE for Java development, offering support for desktop applications.
  • PyCharm: JetBrains IDE specifically designed for Python development, including desktop apps.

Frameworks and Libraries:

  • .NET Framework: A Microsoft framework that provides tools and libraries for Windows desktop development.
  • Qt: A cross-platform framework that allows developers to write desktop applications that run on multiple operating systems.
  • Electron: A framework that enables building desktop applications using web technologies such as HTML, CSS, and JavaScript.
  • WinForms and WPF: Microsoft’s frameworks for building Windows desktop applications using C#.
  • GTK+: A widely-used toolkit for creating graphical user interfaces (GUIs) in Linux desktop applications.
  • Version Control Systems:
  • Git: The most popular distributed version control system used by developers across different platforms.
  • Package Managers:
  • NuGet: A package manager for .NET languages, allowing developers to manage and install dependencies in their projects.
  • npm: The package manager for JavaScript and Node.js, often used with frameworks like Electron.
  • Testing and Debugging Tools:
  • Visual Studio Debugger: A powerful debugging tool integrated into Visual Studio.
  • Xcode Instruments: A suite of performance analysis and debugging tools for macOS and iOS development.
  • JUnit: A popular testing framework for Java applications.
  • Pytest: A testing framework for Python applications.
  • UI/UX Design Tools:
  • Adobe XD: A powerful design and prototyping tool for creating user interfaces.
  • Sketch: A vector-based design tool popular among macOS and iOS designers.
  • Figma: A collaborative design tool that allows teams to work together on UI/UX design.

In the context of browsing and command language in the desktop development landscape, let’s explore how command language works in the backend to provide UI results:

  • Command Language: Command language is a textual interface that allows users to interact with a system or application by issuing specific commands. It provides a way to communicate with the underlying software and perform various actions or operations. Command languages can be specific to an operating system, development framework, or application.
  • Backend Development: Backend development refers to the process of building the server-side components of an application or system. In the case of browsing, the backend development involves handling the processing and execution of commands issued by users.
  • Command Interpretation: When a user enters a command in a command-line interface or terminal, the backend system interprets the command and performs the requested operation. The command is parsed, validated, and translated into executable instructions.
  • Data Processing: After interpreting the command, the backend system processes the command and accesses the necessary data or resources to perform the desired action. This may involve retrieving data from databases, performing calculations, or interacting with other services or APIs.
  • Business Logic: The backend development includes implementing the business logic that defines how the application or system should respond to different commands. It includes handling error conditions, enforcing security measures, and ensuring data integrity.
  • Generating UI Results: Once the backend processes the command and performs the necessary operations, it generates the appropriate results or output. In the context of browsing, this could involve fetching web content, rendering UI components, or executing specific actions on the user’s behalf.
  • Communication with Frontend: The backend communicates with the frontend or user interface to provide the results of the command. It sends the relevant data or instructions to the frontend, which then displays the UI results to the user. This can involve sending data through APIs, websockets, or other communication protocols.
  • User Feedback and Interaction: The frontend UI allows users to view the results of their commands and interact with the system. Users can provide further input or issue subsequent commands based on the displayed information. The frontend communicates user actions back to the backend for further processing.

Overall, the browsing experience involves a collaboration between the backend and frontend components. The command language in the backend allows users to interact with the system, and the backend processes the commands, performs operations, and generates UI results that are displayed to the user through the frontend interface.

SAP Product


System                                                      Application                                  Product

  • Sap is German based company and one of the world’s leading producers of Software for the management of business processes.
  • The company develops software solutions that are used by small businesses, midsize companies, and large corporations. With standard applications, industry solutions, platforms, and technologies, every business process can be mapped and designed. The software collects and processes data on one platform, from raw material purchasing to production and customer satisfaction.
  • In addition, SAP helps customers seamlessly link operational data on business processes with experience data on emotional factors such as purchase experience and customer feedback. This enables companies to better understand and respond to their customers

Business processes Operation included in SAP are as follows

  • Sales and Distribution
  • Material Management
  • Financial Accounting
  • Human Capital Management
  • Healthy and Safety

Major units

Business software[edit]

         SAP Jam

Industry software

Software for small and midsize enterprises

                            SAP ERP

Functional Modules

                                                                                                                      Technical Modules

  • SAP HRM                                                                                                      SAP BASIS
  • SAPMM                                                                                                        SAPSECURITY
  • SAP FSCM                                                                                                    SAP ABAP
  • SAP SALES AND DISTRIBUTION                                                                 SAP HANA
  • SAP PS                                                                                                            SAP IS                                                                                                                      
  • SAP FICO                                                                                                         SAP NETWEAVER
  • SAP PM                                                                                                         SAP SOLUTION MANAGER
  • SAP QM                                                                                                        SAP CRM

Additional Sap Modules

  • Sap BI BW
  • Sap Apo
  • Sap SFA
  • Sap ITS

Advantage of Sap in simple language

  • No Duplication of Data Occur
  • Business process get Standardized
  • Time saver
  • Planning, scheduling, tracking and management
  • Become easy

Some Details about Most famous SAP Product

SAP MM-It all task in supply management, It is a module of Sap ERP software used for procurement handling, Inventory management.

  • Inventory management
  • Procurement handling
  • Warehouse management


(“SAP MM” OR SAP Material Management) AND (“Inventory management “OR IM) AND (“Planning” OR “Purchasing”) AND (“Warehouse management”)

Sap Hana

  • Sap Hana is used database in its memory not in desk
  • Sap Hana=Sap s4

(“SAP HANA” OR “S/4 HANA”) AND (“Technical Consultant” OR “Techno”) AND (SQL)


  • SAP SD-Core Functional (sales and Distribution)-It Allows the Organization to store and manage customer and product related data.
  • Organization used this data to manage all of these skills like ordering, shipping, billing, invoicing, services.

(“SAP SD” OR “Sales & Distribution” AND (O2C OR “Order to cash”) AND (“procure to pay” OR p2p)